Socio-economic Studies

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We rely on carefully planned, very precise and logically flowing work.

Socioeconomic studies are broadly concerned with the social, cultural, demographic, fiscal, economic, public services and political conditions prevailing in, and affecting the stakeholders in a given site (communities, organizations, country etc.)

Our Socioeconomic studies are well organized, systematic, and have minimum bias allowing for consistent comparison and reasoned judgment. We rely on carefully planned, very precise and logically flowing work methodologies. Our methodologies involve:

1. Developing an understanding of the baseline conditions

As part of our preparatory work, we collect data and information from secondary sources about the conditions in the study site including socioeconomic aspects, demographic, environmental quality and on-going development schemes.

2. Developing a comprehensive profile of the study site

At Dapri Consulting, we believe in building a comprehensive profile of each study site including Boundaries of the study site, Demographic structure, Economic structure, Social structure, Infrastructure provision and on- going Development schemes. This helps to highlight the character and main features of the study site.

3. Developing a set of criteria for assessment

At this point, our team usually develop a comprehensive list of all possible socioeconomic impacts and indicators. Thereafter, these impacts should be scoped to focus on the most important impacts to be dealt with within the context of the socioeconomic study. After scoping, the data and information from secondary sources about the study site and the previous development schemes are reviewed to identify the gap of information to be collected from primary sources.


4. Pilot survey and feedback assessment

In order to ensure the effectiveness and adequacy of the designed data collection instruments, Dapri Consulting usually insists on carrying out pilot surveys in order to pre-test the instruments for accuracy, reliability and validity.

5. Field work

After the identification of gaps in the required data and information, Dapri Consulting staff normally plan for field surveys. Planning involves the identification of the target population and sampling techniques to be deployed. Other important activities include designing questionnaires and other survey instruments (focus group discussion checklists, key informant interview schedules etc.)

6. Data entry and verification

Dealing with large amount of data requires a systematic approach for data coding, tabulating and entry. As a matter of practice, before data entry, our team verifies all the collected data.


7. Data Analysis

Analyses usually involve standard statistical analysis of the data and information collected, and is based upon the criteria developed before fieldwork. Our team at Dapri Consulting have the requisite know-how and experience in using various data analysis tools such as SPSS, EpiInfo, GenStat, MaxStat, Statgraphics, S-PLUS and SigmaStat.

8. Socioeconomic impacts assessment and identification of main areas of concern

From the analysis phase, our socioeconomic impacts assessment explores and highlights possible relationships between the socioeconomic variables of interest in the study site.

9. Developing a Conceptual framework

Ultimately, all our research solutions are geared towards solving a particular problem. From the analyses conducted, our team usually explore various alternatives which might alleviate the problems prevailing in the study sites. A change model for enhancing positive impacts and minimizing negative impacts is proposed at this stage.


FEASIBILITY STUDIES

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Feasibility studies aim to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of the existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success.

Our feasibility studies can be in form of:

Cost/benefit analysis

gives a picture of the net worth of investments. The methodologies are both qualitative and quantitative, and draw on multiple lines of evidence. An entrepreneur must accurately weigh the cost versus benefits before taking an action.

Cost-based study

is important to identify cost and benefit factors, which can be categorized as either development costs or operating costs. This is an analysis of the costs to be incurred in the system and the benefits derivable out of the system.

Time-based study

This is an analysis of the time required to achieve a return on investments. The future value of a project is also a factor.

EVALUATION STUDIES

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There are many different types of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. The most basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summative evaluation.

Formative Evaluations

implies that the results will be used in the formation and revision the object- they help form it by examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on.

They include the following types:

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Needs Assessment

determines who needs the program, how great the need is, and what might work to meet the need.

Evaluability Assessment

determines whether an evaluation is feasible and how stakeholders can help shape its usefulness.

Structured Conceptualization

helps stakeholders define the program or technology, the target population, and the possible outcomes.

Implementation evaluation

monitors the fidelity of the program or technology delivery.

Process Evaluation

investigates the process of delivering the program or technology, including alternative delivery procedures.

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Summative Evaluations

is used for the purpose of documenting outcomes and judging value. They summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object. It is used for providing feedback about the quality of a program, reporting to stakeholders and granting agencies, producing reports for accreditation, and marketing the attributes of a subject or program. Most studies of this type are rarely exclusively summative in practice, and they usually contain some aspects of formative assessment.

Summative evaluation can also be subdivided into:

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Meta-analysis

integrates the outcome estimates from multiple studies to arrive at an overall or summary judgement on an evaluation question. It allows you to develop a better understanding of the process of change, and finding out what works, what doesn’t, and why. This allows you to gather the knowledge to learn and improve future project designs and implementation.

Impact Evaluation

allows you to compare the impact of different projects and make results-based decisions on future spending allocations (taking into account unintended consequences).

Outcome Evaluations

provides a means to find out whether your project has reached its goals/objectives/outcomes.

Cost-effectiveness & Cost-benefit Analysis

address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their costs and values.

Secondary Analysis

re-examines existing data to address new questions or use methods not previously employed.

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Our Evaluation studies focus on efficiency, effectiveness and impact. Some common forms and models of evaluation that we undertake include:

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Participatory Evaluation

as an internal evaluation methodology seeks to involve as many people with a direct stake in the work as possible. This may mean project staff and beneficiaries working together on the evaluation. Our role may be limited to that of a facilitator of the process, not an evaluator.

Rapid Participatory Appraisal

is a qualitative way of doing evaluations by an interdisciplinary team over a short time. It is used as a starting point for understanding a local situation and is a quick and useful way to gather information. It involves the use of secondary data review, direct observation, semi-structured interviews, key informants, group interviews, games, diagrams, maps and calendars.

Scientific Experimental Model

they prioritize on the desirability of impartiality, accuracy, objectivity and the validity of the information generated. Included under scientific-experimental models would be: the tradition of experimental and quasi-experimental designs; objectives-based research that comes from education; econometrically-oriented perspectives including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and the recent articulation of theory-driven evaluation.

Qualitative/anthropological models

emphasizes the importance of observation, the need to retain the phenomenological quality of the evaluation context, and the value of subjective human interpretation in the evaluation process.

External Evaluation

This is an evaluation done by a carefully chosen outsider or outsider team.

Participant-Oriented Models

emphasize the central importance of the evaluation participants, especially clients and users of the program or technology. Client-centred and stakeholder approaches are examples of participant-oriented models, as are consumer-oriented evaluation systems.

Management-oriented systems models

Include PERT (the Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (the Critical Path Method) and the Logical framework (Logframe) model.

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Data Analysis Techniques

At Dapri Consulting, we conduct statistical and other forms of analysis using a number of techniques including:

  • Chi-Square Testing
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Conjoint Analysis
  • Correlation Analysis
  • Factor Analysis
  • Multi-Dimensional
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Perceptual Mapping
  • Regression Analysis
  • Significance Test